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Kamis, 23 Juni 2011

16 Tensis dalam Bahasa Inggris


Pengungkapan suatu kejadian/aktivitas atau fakta baik melalui tulisan (writing) maupun percakapan (speaking) pada umumnya mengikuti pola sebagai berikut:

 

Subject + Verb/Predicate + Object + Modifier


Dalam bahasa Inggris, pengungkapan kejadian/aktivitas atau fakta tersebut selalu berpatokan pada tensis. Dengan tensis, pembaca atau lawan bicara akan mengetahui kapan kejadian/aktivitas atau fakta tersebut terjadi; Apakah sedang berlangsung pada saat sekarang (present continuous tense), apakah terjadi di masa lampau (past tense), apakah sedang berlangsung di masa lampau (past continuous tense), apakah akan terjadi di masa yang akan datang (future tense),  dan seterusnya.

Di sini, kita akan mendiskusikan 16 tensis (& aspek) dalam bahasa Inggris, yaitu:

  1. Simple present tense
  2. Present continuous tense
  3. Simple past tense
  4. Past continuous tense
  5. Present perfect tense
  6. Present perfect continuous tense
  7. Past perfect tense
  8. Past perfect continuous tense
  9. Simple future tense
  10. Future continuous tense
  11. Future perfect tense
  12. Future perfect continuous tense
  13. Past future tense
  14. Past future continuous tense
  15. Past future perfect tense
  16. Past future perfect continuous tense

Pada tabel di bawah secara berturut-turut diberikan contoh untuk tiap-tiap tensis. Perhatikan perubahan verb atau verb phrase seiring dengan berubahnya keterangan waktu.

 


Subject
Verb/Predicate
Object
Modifier
1
We
study
English
everyday.
2
We
are studying
English
now.
3
We
studied
English
last night.
4
We
were studying
English
when she came last night.
5
We
have studied
English
for 3 hours.
6
We
have been studying
English
for 3 hours.
7
We
had studied
English
for 3 hours when she came last night.
8
We
had been studying
English
for 3 hours when she came last night.
9
We
will study
English
tomorrow.
10
We
will be studying
English
when she comes tomorrow.
11
We
will have studied
English
for 3 hours when she comes tomorrow.
12
We
will have been studying
English
for 3 hours when she comes tomorrow.
13
We
would study
English
when she came last night.
14
We
would be studying
English
when she came last night.
15
We
would have studied
English
for 3 hours when she came last night.
16
We
would have been studying
English
for 3 hours when she came last night.


Note: Khusus untuk contoh 5&6, 7&8, 11&12, dan 15&16 keterangan waktunya sama. Kenapa? Mari kita bahas tiap tensis satu per satu.

 

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